Fact Source

If venous fistula pressure before treatment is below 25mmHg, the patient should be regarded as “high risk” for VND.


Hans-Dietrich Polaschegg, Seminar: Venous needle dislodgement: A safety issue. Possible methods for detection and prevention of major blood loss. EDTNA/ERCA Conference, Prague, Sept 2008.


The last two hours of dialysis is the most likely time for a VND incident.


Mactier RA, Worth DP. Minimizing the Risk of Venous Needle Dislodgement during Haemodialysis. The Artery 41, 2007.


Patients who lose more than 40% of their blood are more likely to suffer from permanent life-altering consequences such as stroke, and other permanent disabilities.


Hurst J. Venous Needle Dislodgement. Renal Business Today. Sept 9, 2009.


 An average-size woman can lose more than 40% of her blood volume in less than 5 minutes.


The Human Body - How Much Blood Is In the Average Human Body?

In less than 7.5 minutes an average-size man receiving dialysis treatment can lose more than 50% of his blood volume from an undetected VND.


The Human Body - How Much Blood Is In the Average Human Body?

The number of fatal venous needle dislodgments in the United States may be between 40 and 136 annually.


Sandroni S, Sherockman T, Hays-Leight, K. Catastrophic Hemorrhage from Venous Needle Dislodgement during Hemodialysis: Continued Risk of Avoidable Death and Progress toward a Solution
Presented at ASN/Renal Week, Philadelphia, Nov 2008.